What is populism là gì

Populism is on the rise - especially among Europe's right, & in the US, where it helped crown Mr Trump.Quý Khách vẫn xem: Populism là gì

Italy's popumenu Five sầu Star Movement và anti-immigrant League parties have emerged as two major players in the latest elections - the most recent of several such results in Europe.

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In political science, populism is the idea that society is separated into two groups at odds with one another - "the pure people" & "the corrupt elite", according to lớn Cas Mudde, author of Populism: A Very Short Introduction.

The term is often used as a kind of shorth& political insult. Britain's Labour leader, Jeremy Corbyn, has been accused of populism over his party's biểu ngữ "for the many, not the few" - but that's not quite the same thing.

The word "is generally misused, especially in a European context," according to Benjamin Moffitt, author of The Global Rise of Populism.

The true popumenu leader claims to lớn represent the unified "will of the people". He stands in opposition to lớn an enemy, often embodied by the current system - aiming to "drain the swamp" or tackle the "liberal elite".

"It generally attaches itself lớn the right in a European context… but that's not an iron rule," Dr Moffitt said.

Popudanh sách parties can be anywhere on the political spectrum. In Latin America, there was Venezuela's late President Chávez. In Spain, there is the Podemos các buổi party, & in Greece the label has also been applied khổng lồ Syriza. All these are on the left.

But "most successful populists today are on the right, particularly the radical right," Prof Mudde said.

Politicians "like Marine Le Pen in France, Viktor Orchào bán in Hungary, và Donald Trump in the US, combine populism with nativism and authoritarianism," he added.


image captionIn Italy, supporters of the populist Five Star movement brandish letters spelling out their government ambitions

Commentators - from Time magazine to lớn the President of the European Commission - have been warning about the rise of right-wing populism for years.

"Political scientists have been catching on to this for the last 25-30 years," Dr Moffitt says - but admits "there's been an acceleration."

Experts point khổng lồ both societal changes lượt thích multiculturalism and globalism, & more concrete crises as behind the rise of populist parties in Europe.

The swell in tư vấn seemed khổng lồ happen "from 2008 - & particularly in 2011, when the banking crisis turned inkhổng lồ a sovereign debt crisis", he said.

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It was a rare occasion when an elite class - the wealthy bankers - could be identified as more or less directly responsible for a crisis which affected the majority of society.

In his book The Global Rise of Populism, Dr Moffitt argues that there are other traits associated with the typical populist leader.

One is "bad manners", or behaving in a way that's not typical of politicians - a tactic employed by President Trump và the Philippines' President Duterte.

The other, he says, is "perpetuating a state of crisis" - and always seeming to lớn be on the offensive.

"A populist leader who gets inlớn power is 'forced' khổng lồ be in a permanent chiến dịch khổng lồ convince his people that he is not establishment - và never will be," according to lớn Prof Nadia Urbinati from Columbia University.

She argues that populist nội dung is "made of negatives" - whether it is anti-politics, anti-intellectualism, or anti-elite. Here lies one of the populism's strengths - it is versatile.

Another common thread among mỏi popumenu leaders is they tkết thúc khổng lồ dislike the "complicated democratic systems" of modern government - preferring direct democracy lượt thích referendums instead, according lớn Prof Bull.

That also ties in lớn its links to authoritarianism, he argues - a lachồng of trust in the established system gives rise to "strongman" leaders.

"Ultimately, the leader makes the decision in a way that just isn't possible in traditional democracies," he says.

That sentiment is perhaps best embodied by the late left-wing Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, who once said: "I am not an individual - I am the people".


Such thinking "can lead to lớn people thinking they're infallible," Dr Moffitt said. "It restructures the political space in a new và scary way".

"In order khổng lồ garner tư vấn, they're quicker than the establishment buổi tiệc nhỏ lớn make offers, or to lớn promise to change things… that on closer inspection may not turn out to lớn be feasible," he said.

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